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Choosing Environmental Policy:
Comparing Instruments and Outcomes in the United States and Europe

Speaker and Panelist Bios


Dick Morgenstern (full web CV) joined RFF in 1995 as a visiting scholar, and is currently a senior fellow in RFF’s Quality of the Environment division. His research focuses on the economic analysis of environmental issues with an emphasis on the costs, benefits, evaluation, and design of environmental policies, especially economic incentive measures. His analysis also focuses on climate change, including the design of cost-effective policies to reduce emissions in the United States and abroad. Immediately prior to joining RFF, Morgenstern was senior economic counselor to the undersecretary for global affairs at the U.S. Department of State, where he participated in negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol. Previously he served at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he acted as deputy administrator (1993); assistant administrator for policy, planning, and evaluation (1991–93); and director of the Office of Policy Analysis (1983–95). Formerly a tenured professor at the City University of New York, Morgenstern has taught recently at Oberlin College, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, Yeshiva University, and American University. He has served on expert committees of the National Academy of Sciences and as a consultant to various organizations. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan, A.B. in economics from Oberlin College, and completed post-doctoral studies at the Columbia University School of Business.


Winston Harrington (full web CV)  is a senior fellow in the Quality of the Environment division at Resources for the Future (RFF), where he began as a research associate in 1976. His interests include urban transportation, motor vehicles and air quality, and problems of estimating the costs of environmental policy. He has worked extensively on the economics of enforcing environmental regulations, the health benefits derived from improved air quality, the costs of waterborne disease outbreaks, endangered species policy, federal rulemaking procedures, and the economics of outdoor recreation. Harrington has written or coauthored five books and numerous book chapters. In October 2000, he won the Vernon Award of the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management for a paper he coauthored, “On the Accuracy of Regulatory Cost Estimates.” Harrington has served as a consultant to U.S. state and federal governments, the World Bank, and the Harvard Institute for International Development and has worked in Lithuania, Mexico, and Poland. He also is on the adjunct faculty at Georgetown University. Winston received his Ph.D. in city and regional planning and A.B in mathematics from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and his M.A. in mathematics from Cornell University.


John D. Graham is the administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), Office of Management and Budget in the George W. Bush Administration. His responsibilities include coordination of regulatory review, paperwork reduction, statistical policy and information policy in the Federal government. Prior to joining the Bush Administration, Dr. Graham founded and led the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis from 1990 to 2001. Dr. Graham has served on the faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health, where he taught graduate students the methods of risk analysis and cost-benefit analysis. He has written seven books and more than 100 scientific articles and is best known for his scholarship on automotive safety and environmental policy. He was born and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is an avid golfer and bridge player. Dr. Graham earned his BA from Wake Forest University, his MA from Duke University and his Ph.D. from Carnegie-Mellon University. He served as a pre-doctoral fellow at the Brookings Institution and as a post-doctoral fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health.


Josephine Cooper is group vice president of government and industry affairs at Toyota Motor North America in Washington, DC. Cooper directs all of Toyota's federal government affairs, overseeing lobbying and legislative matters. She was most recently president and chief executive officer of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. Cooper brings more than 25 years of Washington experience to Toyota, having served as vice president for regulatory affairs at the American Forest & Paper Association; a congressional aide to former Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker and to then-Representative Dick Cheney; as assistant administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for external affairs; as chief operating officer of the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association; and as a corporate public affairs executive with Hill & Knowlton.


Joseph Goffman is an attorney and consultant on environmental law and policy issues in Washington, DC. He is currently working on a book about acid rain and modern environmentalism. Between 1992 and 2004, Goffman was a senior attorney at Environmental Defense (formerly known as the Environmental Defense Fund), where, in addition to managing the climate and air quality program, he specialized in the use of market-based mechanisms to address a wide range of air pollution problems. He continues as a member of the board of directors of the Environmental Resources Trust, a not-for-profit organization that he and two colleagues founded with the help of Environmental Defense in order to create innovative market-based projects and transactions that yield environmental benefits.

Goffman was a leading member of the Environmental Defense team that created the greenhouse gas emissions budget and trading proposal that was embraced as a critical element of the U.S. position in international negotiations on climate change, a position fundamentally incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol. He was also active in Environmental Defense’s Partnership for Climate Action, a network of multinational companies in the chemical, petrochemical, electricity and aluminum sectors pursuing voluntary actions to manage and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In his first stint at Environmental Defense in the late 1980's, he co-authored the proposal that became President George H. W. Bush's plan for the use of emissions trading to reduce the pollutants that cause acid rain. As associate counsel to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the U.S. Senate in 1989 and 1990, he was chiefly responsible for the development and drafting of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which established the acid rain trading system. In addition, in 1991, he spent a year as a special assistant and acting section chief in the U.S. EPA overseeing the development and drafting of the proposed rules governing the trading of sulfur dioxide emissions allowances under Title IV.

Goffman’s experience includes active participation in the design of Illinois’ VOC reduction and trading program, and of the NOx emissions budget programs of the Ozone Transport Commission, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the Maryland Department of the Environment. In the early 1980s, Mr. Goffman was an associate in commercial litigation for the New York law firm of Weil, Gotshal and Manges. Goffman received undergraduate and law degrees from Yale University in 1976 and 1979, respectively.


Miranda A. Schreurs (Ph.D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1996) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Government at the University of Maryland at College Park. Her current research interests focus on comparative environmental and energy politics in Northeast Asia and Europe. She is currently completing a book manuscript examining environmental policy formulation in Japan and Germany from the 1960s to the 1990s. In 1998, she co-edited a book with Dennis Pirages that explores environmental, ecological, and energy security and cooperation in Northeast Asia, entitled Ecological Security in Northeast Asia, Seoul.

Professor Schreurs has written extensively on environmental and energy policy issues for various journals, including Environmental Politics, the Journal of Pacific Asia, and Kaigai Jijoo, and has numerous chapters in edited collections. In the summer of 1999, Schreurs participated in a three-week Fulbright German Studies Seminar on Alternative Energy and the Environment held in Germany. She has researched in Japan, Germany, and the Netherlands on a Fulbright dissertation fellowship (1990-91), a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Peace and Security Affairs, and a National Science Foundation/Science Technology Agency of Japan fellowship. Prior to starting her teaching career at the University of Maryland, Schreurs spent two years conducting research at the Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Schreurs speaks and reads Japanese, German, and Dutch. Schreurs holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, and an M.A. and B.A. from the University of Washington.


Al McGartland is the director of the National Center for Environmental Economics and lead economist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Al is responsible for analyzing the economic and environmental effects of environmental policies, designing and analyzing emissions trading and other innovative pollution control schemes, and studying the relationship between our economy and environment. As the chief economist for the EPA, Al advises senior policymaking officials on the economics of environmental policies and translates economic research into policy contexts. Al also advises on key science policy issues facing EPA. The National Center for Environmental Economics issues EPA’s Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses and conducts numerous studies to assess the benefits and costs of environmental programs. The Center also conducts key research on environmental science issues, including the EPA’s publication of America’s Children and the Environment. Al also supports numerous interagency initiatives.

Most recently, Al is managing EPA’s environmental assessments of the Administration’s free trade negotiations. Prior to EPA, Al worked at the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Office of Management and Budget. While there, Al reviewed environmental regulations and supporting analyses. Al served as the economic advisor to the Chairman at the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Al was also a vice president at Abt Associates, Inc., a public policy and economics consulting firm. He has published in several journals, including the American Economic Review, the Canadian Journal of Economics, the Journal of Environmental Management, the medical journal, Lancet, the Northwestern Law Review, and the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Al also has contributed to numerous books and reports on environmental economic issues. He received his Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Maryland.

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