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China's Environmental Problems and Resources for the Future
China's Environmental Problems and Resources for the Future

中国的问题与将来源研究机构

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China is quickly becoming a dominant economic force worldwide in the 21st century. Rapid industrialization and social change have raised the standard of living for millions of its people, mainly in the East and Southeastern coastal provinces, who can now afford to buy washing machines, televisions, and, increasingly, cars.

中国在21 正迅速 地成世界经济的一 支主要力量。快速的 化和社会革已 使其数百万人民的 生活水平得到了提升,尤其在部和南沿 海省份,他们现已有 能力购买洗衣机和 机,而且私人汽 的数量也与日增。

But this success comes at great environmental cost. China has followed a pattern similar to many other countries of both the developed and developing world. The process of industrialization is often linked to deteriorating environmental quality and rarely turned around until a country has increased its standard of living.

但是,这种成功却是以沉重的境代价来的。中国至今所走的模 式和多其它已展和展中国家相似。工化的程往往伴随着 量的化,并且在一个国家的生活水平提升之前几乎无法改善此

Increasingly severe problems associated with industrial growth threaten the health of Chinese households. Sixteen of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in China, the result of burning brown coal, the dirtiest kind available, and the growing numbers of cars on the road. In many parts of the country, water is so polluted from manufacturing waste that it is unsafe to drink. Deforestation has intensified annual summer dust storms, and the sands of the Gobi desert have come within 200 miles of Beijing.

业发来的问题日益峻,中国百姓的健康构成巨大威全世界染最重的20 个城市中有16 个在中国,是燃褐煤(最的煤)和汽上路数量增多所造成的后果。在中国的多地区,水源也 因制造 业废弃物之染而无法安全用。采伐森林加 年夏季的沙 暴,戈壁的沙漠已逼近至距离北京不到200 英里的地方。

Severe air and water pollution throughout the country has triggered significant medical problems that the state health system is struggling to address, including rising rates of cancer and respiratory disease. These broad problems will take decades to solve but current government efforts are addressing smaller, more specific issues; for example, work is now underway to control air pollution in Beijing.

全国境内重的空气和水源染已引了使得国家生系疲于

付的医疗问题,包括不断升高的癌症和呼吸系疾病病率。些大范 问题将需要几十年才能解决,但是政府的当之急是解决小、具体的问题,例如,正在行之中之北京空气染的治理工作。

Fortunately, the Chinese government has made pollution control an official goal and has recognized that lessons from the United States and other nations can be useful in China to stem further ecological degradation. One of these lessons is the need to contain the costs of necessary environmental quality reforms, given other competing priorities for scarce financial resources. This has increased the appeal of regulatory approaches that can improve environmental quality at a low cost. For this reason, Chinese environmental authorities have become very interested in U.S. programs that use market-based approaches to achieve the objectives of federal air quality standards at a lower cost than traditional regulatory methods.

幸运的是,中国政府已将染治理列其正式目,并已认识到,

美国和其它国家的经验将有助于中国防止的生态恶化。其中 之一是要限制有必要的量改革成本,将缺的源用于 其它更重要的地方。使人更注意去采取能以低成本改善的管理措施。因此,中国保部门对美国的做法很感趣?即是采取以 场为,且成本低于传统管理方式的手段来实现联邦空气准。

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