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NewApproachesonEnergyandtheEnvironment
New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 1 Taking the Lead on Climate Change - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 23 Bureau of Environmental Statistics - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 24 Treading Carefully With Environmental Information - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 22 Combatting Ignorance About US Water Quality - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 7 Making Electricity Markets Competitive - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 3 Carbon Tax to Reduce the Deficit - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 8 Cleaning Up Power Plant Emissions - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 25 Better Evaluation of Life Saving Environmental Regulations - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 4 Slaking Our Thirst for Oil - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 5 Stimulating Renewable Energy - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 6 Rewarding Automakers for Fuel Economy - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 4 Pay As You Drive Car Insurance - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 10 State Innovation for Environmental Improvements- New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
11 Pay as You Slow: Road Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion
Chapter 21 Zoning the Oceans - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
18 Streamlining Forest Service Planning
13 A New Approach to Air Quality Management
Chapter 16 Modernizing the Food Safety System - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 15 A Broader View of Brownfield Revitalization - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 2 Stimulating Technology to Slow Climate Change - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 12 Focus on Particulates More Than Smog- New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 13 New Approach to Air Quality Management - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 14 Redirecting Superfund Dollars - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 17 Performance Standards for Food Safety - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 19 Smarter Budgeting for Space Missions - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Chapter 20 Taking the Lead on Climate Change - New Approaches on Energy and the Environment
Siren Song
True Warnings False Alarms
Common Waters Diverging Streams
Choosing Environmental Policy
Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides
Painting the White House Green
Northern Landscapes
Archive Painting-the-White-House-Green
The Bioengineered Forest
Collaborative Environmental Management
The Equitable Forest
Superfund's Future
Environmental Protection and the Social Responsibility of Firms
Determining the Economic Value of Water: Concepts and Methods
Toward Safer Food
Scarcity and Growth Revisited
Zoned Out
RFF-Reader-Second-Edition
Small-Firms-and-the-Environment
Emissions-Trading
Leveraging-the-Private-Sector
Water-Resources-in-Jordan
Liquid-Assets
Pricing-Irrigation-Water
Politics-and-Economics-of-Indonesias-Natural-Resources
Economics-and-Contemporary-Land-Use-Policy
Environmental-Life-Cycle
Assessments-of-Regional-and-Global-Environmental-Risks
The Forest Ranger: A Study in Administrative Behavior - Herbert Kaufman
Adaptive-Governance-and-Water-Conflict
Arizona Water Policy: Management Innovations in an Urbanizing, Arid Region - RFF Press
The-Complex-Forest
TheUrbanHousehold
Managing_Natural_Wealth
National-Environmental-Accounting
Private-Rights-in-Public-Resources
China's Forests: Global Lessons from Market Reforms
Natural-States
Science-and-Technology
Voices-from-the-Forest
Reality Check
Negotiated Learning
RuralElectrification
SustainingRockyMountainLandscapes
Wildfire Risk
Cornbelt
Wye Island
Choosing Safety: A Guide to using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Decision Analysis in Complex, High Consequence Systems
Softwood Lumber War
 

 

 
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Getting Serious About
Antibiotic Resistance
Ramanan Laxminarayan

Chapter 20 in New Approaches on Energy and the Environment: Policy Adivce for the President



Every year in America, some 40,000 people die from infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, only slightly less than the number of those killed on our roads.

This may actually be an underestimate, because many other deaths, particularly those of elderly patients suffering from a myriad of problems, may in reality be caused by these so-called superbugs.

Mr. President, in order to address this serious threat to the nation’s public health, I recommend that you introduce legislation to discourage the use of antibiotics where they bring little benefit to patients.

 

These measures would include increasing cost-sharing for antibiotics under Medicare and Medicaid, while expanding coverage and subsidies for cough and cold medications that patients may use instead of antibiotics.

In addition, a large proportion of antibiotic use in the United States is by the animal industry to help farm animals gain weight faster.

Link to Chapter 20, Getting Serious About Antibiotic Resistance
Download this Policy Recommendation

Studies indicate that the benefit of using antibiotics for this purpose is greatly outweighed by the cost imposed on the rest of society in terms of reduced antibiotic effectiveness. In light of this, I also propose a ban on the use in growth promotion of all antibiotics that are currently being used to treat human infections.



Related Policy Recommendations:

Chapter 16. Modernizing the Food Safety System 
Michael R. Taylor

Chapter 17. Performance Standards for Food Safety
Sandra A.Hoffmann and Alan J. Krupnick



Ramanan Laxminarayan's work on "resistance economics" uses economic analysis to develop policy responses to such problems as bacterial resistance to antibiotics and pest resistance to pesticides. He has served on expert panels on these issues at the World Health Organization and the Institute of Medicine and is editor of Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach.



All Policy Recommendations in New Approaches on Energy and the Environment are available for complimentary download from each chapter's webpage. (Copyright © 2004 by Resources for the Future.) Use of these chapters is for personal use only. Contents may not be duplicated or retransmitted by print, electronic, or other means without written permission of the publisher. To purchase a printed copy of the book, click on the button below.

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