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Carolyn Fischer
Senior Fellow and Associate Director, Center for Climate and Electricity Policy
Carolyn Fischer works primarily on policy mechanisms and modeling tools that cut across environmental issues, from allowance allocation in emissions trading schemes to wildlife management in Zimbabwe. In the areas of climate change and energy policy, she has published articles on designing cap-and-trade programs, fuel economy standards, renewable portfolio standards, energy efficiency programs, technology policies, the Clean Development Mechanism, and the evaluation of international climate policy commitments. A current focus of her research is the interplay between international trade and climate policy, options for avoiding carbon leakage, and the implications for energy-intensive, trade-exposed sectors. In areas of natural resources management, her research addresses issues of wildlife conservation, invasive species, and biotechnology, with particular emphasis on the opportunities and challenges posed by international trade.  
Featured Publications
Combining Rate-based and Cap–and–Trade Emissions Policies
Carolyn Fischer
Climate Policy | December 2003 | Vol. 3, Supplement 2 | pp. S89-S103
A Theory of Multi-Tier Ecolabels
Carolyn Fischer
134th EAAE Seminar on “Labels on sustainability: an issue for consumers, producers, policy makers, and NGOs” | European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) | Paris, France | March 22, 2013
Environmental and Technology Policy Options in the Electricity Sector: Interactions and Outcomes
Carolyn Fischer
Seminar, The Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment | London School of Economics | London, UK | January 16, 2013
Comparing Policies to Combat Emissions Leakage: Border Tax Adjustments versus Rebates
Carolyn Fischer and Alan K. Fox
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | September 2012 | Vol. 64, No. 2. | pp. 199–216 | Related Discussion Paper 09-02
Alternative Climate Policies and Intertemporal Emissions Leakage: Quantifying the Green Paradox
Carolyn Fischer, Stephen W. Salant
RFF Discussion Paper 12-16 | April 2012
Climate Policy, Uncertainty, and the Role of Technological Innovation
Carolyn Fischer and Thomas Sterner
Journal of Public Economy Theory | March 2012 | Vol. 14, No. 2 | pp. 285-309.
Alternative Climate Policies and Intertemporal Emissions Leakage
Carolyn Fischer
ASSA Meetings | American Economic Association | Chicago, IL | January 6, 2012
Cost-Effective Unilateral Climate Policy Design: Size Matters
Cristoph Bohringer, Carolyn Fischer, Knut Einar Rosendahl
RFF Discussion Paper 11-34 | July 2011
The Role of Trade and Competitiveness Measures in US Climate Policy
Carolyn Fischer and Alan K.Fox
American Economic Review | May 2011 | Vol. 101, No. 3 | pp. 258–62
Emissions Targets and the Real Business Cycle: Intensity Targets versus Caps or Taxes
Carolyn Fischer, Michael R. Springborn
RFF Discussion Paper 09-47 REV | April 2011
Related journal article
The Role of Trade and Competitiveness Measures in U.S. Climate Policy
Carolyn Fischer
AEA session Critical Issues in National Climate Policy Design | American Economic Association | Denver, CO | January 9, 2011
The Global Effects of Subglobal Climate Policies
Christoph Boehringer, Carolyn Fischer, and Knut Einar Rosendahl
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy | Vol. 10, No. 2 | Related Discussion Paper 10-48
On the Scope for Output-Based Rebating in Climate Policy: When Revenue Recycling Isn’t Enough (or Isn’t Possible)
Carolyn Fischer, Alan Fox
RFF Discussion Paper 10-69 | December 2010
Imperfect Competition, Consumer Behavior, and the Provision of Fuel Efficiency in Light-Duty Vehicles
Carolyn Fischer
RFF Discussion Paper 10-60 | December 2010
Combining Policies for Renewable Energy: Is the Whole Less Than the Sum of Its Parts?
Carolyn Fischer and Louis Preonas
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics | Vol. 4, No. 1 | pp. 51-92 | Related Discussion Paper 10-19
Does Trade Help or Hinder the Conservation of Natural Resources?
Carolyn Fischer
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Winter 2010 | Vol. 4, No. 1 | pp. 103-121
Combining Rebates with Carbon Taxes: Optimal Strategies for Coping with Emissions Leakage and Tax Interactions
Carolyn Fischer, Alan Fox
RFF Discussion Paper 09-12 | May 2009
Spatial Management of Invasive Species: Pathways and Policy Options
Jim N. Sanchirico, Heidi J. Albers, Carolyn Fischer and Conrad Coleman
Environmental and Resource Economics | April 2010 | Vol. 45, No. 4 | 517-535
When do Renewable Portfolio Standards Lower Electricity Prices?
Fischer, C.
The Energy Journal | 2010 | Vol. 31, No. 1 | 101-120. | Related Discussion Paper 06-20
Output-Based Allocation of Emissions Permits for Mitigating Tax and Trade Interactions
Carolyn Fischer and Alan Fox
Land Economics | 2007 | Vol. 83, No. 4 | pp. 575-599 | Related Discussion Paper 04-37
View All Related Publications
Are Consumers or Fuel Economy Policies Efficient?
Carolyn Fischer
Reducing Climate Impacts in the Transportation Sector | Daniel Sperling and James S. Cannon, eds. | Springer | 2009
The Critical Role of Technology for International Climate Change Policy
Carolyn Fischer and Christian Egenhofer
Beyond Bali: Strategic Issues for the international climate change negotiations | Christian Egenhofer | Brussels, Belgium: Center for European Policy Studies | 2008
Americans, Cars, and Fuel Economy (and Economists)
Carolyn Fischer
Consilience. Interdisciplinary Communications 2005/2006 | Willy Østreng | Oslo, Norway: Center for Advanced Study at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters | 2007
Technical Innovation and Design Choices for Emissions Trading and Other Climate Policies
Carolyn Fischer
Climate Protection and Emissions Trading | Bernd Hansjuergens, ed. | UK: Cambridge University Press | 2005
Rewarding Automakers for Fuel Economy Improvements
Carolyn Fischer and Paul R. Portney
New Approaches on Energy and the Environment: Policy Advice for the President | Richard D. Morgenstern and Paul R. Portney, eds. | RFF Press | 2004 | Chapter 6
Economic Issues Related to Design of a Domestic Permit Trading System
Carolyn Fischer
Global Warming in Asian Pacific | Chi-Cheng, Robert Mendelsohn and Daigee Shaw, editors | Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd. | 2003
Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies
Carolyn Fischer, Sandra Hoffmann, and Yutaka Yoshino
In Critical Issues in International Environmental Taxation: International and Comparative Perspectives, Volume 1 | Janet Milne, Kurt Deketelaere, Larry Kreiser, and Hope Ashiabor, eds. | Richmond, UK: Richmond Law and Tax Ltd. | 2003
Commentary: Does the Monopolist Care about Resistance?
Carolyn Fischer
Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach | Ramanan Laxminarayan, Editor | Washington, DC: RFF Press | 2002
International Emissions Trading Design and Tax Shifting by Multinational Corporations
Carolyn Fischer
Critical Issues in International Environmental Taxation | Lawrence Kreiser, ed. | Riverwoods, IL: CCH Inc. | 2001
Using Emissions Trading to Regulate National Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Carolyn Fischer, Suzi Kerr, Michael A. Toman
Climate Change Economics and Policy: An RFF Anthology | Michael A. Toman | Washington, DC: RFF Press | 2001
Environmentally and Economically Damaging Subsidies: Concepts and Illustrations
Carolyn Fischer and Michael A. Toman
Climate Change Economics and Policy: An RFF Anthology | Michael A. Toman | Washington, DC: RFF Press | 2001
Climate Change Policy Choices and Technical Innovation
Carolyn Fischer
Climate Change Economics and Policy: An RFF Anthology | Michael A. Toman | Washington, DC: RFF Press | 2001
Good Climate Policy, and Bad
Thursday, December 03, 2009
The Economist
Car Dealer Offers Carbon Offsets; First 400 Sales Get $70 Credit
Wednesday, January 09, 2008
Washington Times
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