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Carolyn Fischer
Senior Fellow and Associate Director, Center for Climate and Electricity Policy
Carolyn Fischer works primarily on policy mechanisms and modeling tools that cut across environmental issues, from allowance allocation in emissions trading schemes to wildlife management in Zimbabwe. In the areas of climate change and energy policy, she has published articles on designing cap-and-trade programs, fuel economy standards, renewable portfolio standards, energy efficiency programs, technology policies, the Clean Development Mechanism, and the evaluation of international climate policy commitments. A current focus of her research is the interplay between international trade and climate policy, options for avoiding carbon leakage, and the implications for energy-intensive, trade-exposed sectors. In areas of natural resources management, her research addresses issues of wildlife conservation, invasive species, and biotechnology, with particular emphasis on the opportunities and challenges posed by international trade.  
Featured Publications
Combining Rate-based and Cap–and–Trade Emissions Policies
Carolyn Fischer
Climate Policy | December 2003 | Vol. 3, Supplement 2 | pp. S89-S103
A Theory of Multi-Tier Ecolabels
Carolyn Fischer
134th EAAE Seminar on “Labels on sustainability: an issue for consumers, producers, policy makers, and NGOs” | European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) | Paris, France | March 22, 2013
Environmental and Technology Policy Options in the Electricity Sector: Interactions and Outcomes
Carolyn Fischer
Seminar, The Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment | London School of Economics | London, UK | January 16, 2013
Comparing Policies to Combat Emissions Leakage: Border Tax Adjustments versus Rebates
Carolyn Fischer and Alan K. Fox
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | September 2012 | Vol. 64, No. 2. | pp. 199–216 | Related Discussion Paper 09-02
Alternative Climate Policies and Intertemporal Emissions Leakage: Quantifying the Green Paradox
Carolyn Fischer, Stephen W. Salant
RFF Discussion Paper 12-16 | April 2012
Climate Policy, Uncertainty, and the Role of Technological Innovation
Carolyn Fischer and Thomas Sterner
Journal of Public Economy Theory | March 2012 | Vol. 14, No. 2 | pp. 285-309.
Alternative Climate Policies and Intertemporal Emissions Leakage
Carolyn Fischer
ASSA Meetings | American Economic Association | Chicago, IL | January 6, 2012
Cost-Effective Unilateral Climate Policy Design: Size Matters
Cristoph Bohringer, Carolyn Fischer, Knut Einar Rosendahl
RFF Discussion Paper 11-34 | July 2011
The Role of Trade and Competitiveness Measures in US Climate Policy
Carolyn Fischer and Alan K.Fox
American Economic Review | May 2011 | Vol. 101, No. 3 | pp. 258–62
Emissions Targets and the Real Business Cycle: Intensity Targets versus Caps or Taxes
Carolyn Fischer, Michael R. Springborn
RFF Discussion Paper 09-47 REV | April 2011
Related journal article
The Role of Trade and Competitiveness Measures in U.S. Climate Policy
Carolyn Fischer
AEA session Critical Issues in National Climate Policy Design | American Economic Association | Denver, CO | January 9, 2011
The Global Effects of Subglobal Climate Policies
Christoph Boehringer, Carolyn Fischer, and Knut Einar Rosendahl
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy | Vol. 10, No. 2 | Related Discussion Paper 10-48
On the Scope for Output-Based Rebating in Climate Policy: When Revenue Recycling Isn’t Enough (or Isn’t Possible)
Carolyn Fischer, Alan Fox
RFF Discussion Paper 10-69 | December 2010
Imperfect Competition, Consumer Behavior, and the Provision of Fuel Efficiency in Light-Duty Vehicles
Carolyn Fischer
RFF Discussion Paper 10-60 | December 2010
Combining Policies for Renewable Energy: Is the Whole Less Than the Sum of Its Parts?
Carolyn Fischer and Louis Preonas
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics | Vol. 4, No. 1 | pp. 51-92 | Related Discussion Paper 10-19
Does Trade Help or Hinder the Conservation of Natural Resources?
Carolyn Fischer
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy | Winter 2010 | Vol. 4, No. 1 | pp. 103-121
Combining Rebates with Carbon Taxes: Optimal Strategies for Coping with Emissions Leakage and Tax Interactions
Carolyn Fischer, Alan Fox
RFF Discussion Paper 09-12 | May 2009
Spatial Management of Invasive Species: Pathways and Policy Options
Jim N. Sanchirico, Heidi J. Albers, Carolyn Fischer and Conrad Coleman
Environmental and Resource Economics | April 2010 | Vol. 45, No. 4 | 517-535
When do Renewable Portfolio Standards Lower Electricity Prices?
Fischer, C.
The Energy Journal | 2010 | Vol. 31, No. 1 | 101-120. | Related Discussion Paper 06-20
Output-Based Allocation of Emissions Permits for Mitigating Tax and Trade Interactions
Carolyn Fischer and Alan Fox
Land Economics | 2007 | Vol. 83, No. 4 | pp. 575-599 | Related Discussion Paper 04-37
View All Related Publications
Det produceras mer miljocertifierat an det saljs.
Carolyn Fischer
Considering a US Carbon Tax: Frequently Asked Questions
Joseph E. Aldy, Timothy J. Brennan, Dallas Burtraw, Jared Carbone, Carolyn Fischer, Robert Kopp, Molly K. Macauley, Richard D. Morgenstern, Daniel F. Morris, Karen L. Palmer, Anthony Paul, Nathan Richardson, Roberton C. Williams III
Resources | 2013 (Digital Issue)
Goings On: Highlights of RFF's Recent Contributions to Shaping Environmental Policy
Kenneth J. Arrow, Sheila M. Olmstead, Dallas Burtraw, Arthur G. Fraas, Margaret A. Walls, Leonard A. Shabman, P. Lynn Scarlett, Ian W.H. Parry, Molly K. Macauley, Roberton C. Williams III, Richard D. Morgenstern, Karen L. Palmer, Allen Blackman, Rebecca Epanchin-Niell, James W. Boyd, Carolyn Fischer
Resources | 2013 (183)
Resources Magazine: 182
Phil Sharp, James W. Boyd, Dallas Burtraw, Carolyn Fischer, Kristin Hayes, Richard D. Morgenstern, Peter Nelson, Nathan Richardson, Warren C. Robinson, Juha V. Siikamäki, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Roberton C. Williams III
Resources | 2013 (182)
Goings On
Joseph E. Stiglitz, Alan J. Krupnick, Carolyn Fischer, Randall Lutter, Margaret A. Walls, Dallas Burtraw, Sheila M. Olmstead, Karen L. Palmer, Joseph E. Aldy
Resources | 2013 (182)
Ensuring Competitiveness under a US Carbon Tax
Carolyn Fischer, Richard D. Morgenstern, Nathan Richardson
Resources | 2013 (182)
Goings On
James Smith, Anthony Paul, Carolyn Fischer, James W. Boyd, Elisheba Beia Spiller, Sheila M. Olmstead, Molly K. Macauley, Phil Sharp, Carolyn Kousky, Raymond J. Kopp, Dallas Burtraw, Alan J. Krupnick, Yusuke Kuwayama , P. Lynn Scarlett, Karen L. Palmer
Resources | 2012 (181)
Trade's Growing Footprint
Carolyn Fischer
Nature: Climate Change | Vol. 1 | June 2011 | 146
The Law and Economics of Trade in Biofuels
Håkan Eggert, Carolyn Fischer and Petros Mavroidis
ENTWINED Issue Brief
Border Carbon Adjustments from a Trade Policy Perspective
Carolyn Fischer and Henrik Horn
ENTWINED Issue Brief
Review of Global Warming and the World Trading System, by Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim.
Carolyn Fischer and Petros Mavroidis
Journal of Economic Literature | Vol. 48, No. 3 | Septermber, 2010
Better Together? The Implications of Linked Canada—US Climate Policies
Dave Sawyer and Carolyn Fischer
C.D. Howe Institute Commentary | No. 307
Review of Global Warming and the World Trading System, by Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim.
Carolyn Fischer and Petros Mavroidis
Journal of Economic Literature | Vol. 48, No. 3 | September 2010
Carbon Policies, Competitiveness, and Emissions Leakage: An International Perspective
Carolyn Fischer, Eric Moore, Richard D. Morgenstern, Toshi Arimura
Conference Summary | April 2010
Congestion And The Commons: What Happens When Some Resources Are Enclosed And Others Are Open Access?
Carolyn Fischer, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Resources | Fall 2009 (173)
The Role of Technology Policies in Climate Mitigation
Carolyn Fischer
Issue Brief 09-08 | July 2009
Climate Policy and Competition: U.S. Industry’s Regulatory Dilemma
Carolyn Fischer, Richard D. Morgenstern
Resources | Winter/Spring 2009 (171)
Let’s Turn CAFE Regulation on Its Head
Carolyn Fischer
Issue Brief 09-06 | May 2009
Metrics for Evaluating Policy Commitments in a Fragmented World: The Challenges of Equity and Integrity
Carolyn Fischer and Richard Morgenstern
Discussion Paper 08-17, Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Green Politics and Policy
Phil Sharp, Raymond J. Kopp, James N. Sanchirico, Sandra A. Hoffmann, Arun S. Malik, Carolyn Fischer, Richard G. Newell, Nigel Purvis, Jon A. Krosnick
Resources | Summer 2008 (169)
What's the Best Way to Promote Green Power? Don't Forget the Emissions Price
Carolyn Fischer, Richard G. Newell
Resources | Summer 2008 (169)
Endangered Species: Progress and Pitfalls During Three Decades of Controversy
Michael Bean, Carolyn Fischer
Resources | Fall/Winter 2008 (167)
The Critical Role of Technology for International Climate Change Policy
Carolyn Fischer and Chrisian Egenhofer
background briefing
Shall We Gather 'round the Campfire?
Carolyn Fischer, Edwin Muchapondwa, Thomas Sterner
Resources | Summer 2005 (158)
Keeping One Row Ahead of the Bugs: The Economics of Pest Resistance to Transgenic Crops
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Carolyn Fischer
Resources | Fall/Winter 2004 (152)
Trading in Endangered Species: Legal Sales Versus Total Bans
Carolyn Fischer
Resources | Spring 2003 (150)
Trade and Environmental Agreements
Yutaka Yoshino, Carolyn Fischer, Sandra A. Hoffmann
Issue Brief 02-21 | August 2002
International Emissions Trading Design and Tax Shifting by Multinational Corporations
Carolyn Fischer
Climate Issue Brief 02-01 | January 2002
Climate Change Policy Choices and Technical Innovation
Carolyn Fischer
RFF Climate Issue Brief #20 | June 2000
Environmentally and Economically Damaging Subsidies: Concepts and Illustrations
Carolyn Fischer, Michael A. Toman
RFF Climate Issue Brief #14 | October 1998
Using Emissions Trading to Regulate U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Additional Policy Design and Implementation Issues
Carolyn Fischer, Michael A. Toman, Suzi Kerr
RFF Climate Issue Brief #11 | June 1998
Using Emissions Trading to Regulate U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Basic Policy Design and Implementation Issues
Carolyn Fischer, Michael A. Toman, Suzi Kerr
RFF Climate Issue Brief #10 | June 1998
Good Climate Policy, and Bad
Thursday, December 03, 2009
The Economist
Car Dealer Offers Carbon Offsets; First 400 Sales Get $70 Credit
Wednesday, January 09, 2008
Washington Times
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