Blog Post

Transparency, Policy Surveillance, and Levels of Effort: A Side Event at COP21 in Paris

Nov 16, 2015 | Kristin Hayes

December 9, 2015 | 10:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m.

Paris, France | Japan Pavilion in the COP21 Conference Centre/“Blue Zone”

A natural outcome of the emerging pledge and review approach to international climate change policy is the interest in comparing mitigation efforts among countries. Many will want to know if similar or “peer” countries are undertaking (or planning to undertake) “comparable” effort in mitigating their greenhouse gas emissions.

Moreover, if the aggregate effort is considered inadequate to address the risks posed by climate change, this will likely prompt interest in identifying opportunities for greater effort by individual countries—an assessment that requires metrics of effort and comparisons among countries.

Speakers at this event will present a framework for comparing mitigation efforts across nations, drawing from a set of principles for designing and implementing informative metrics. They will also address the levels of effort contained in countries’ intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs), presenting empirical quantification of several related metrics. The empirical analysis will emanate from two global models—DNE21+, maintained by the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, and WITCH, maintained by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).


  • Keigo Akimoto: Group Leader, Chief Researcher, Systems Analysis Group, Research Institute of Innovation Technology for the Earth
  • Carlo Carraro: Professor of Environmental Economics, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice; and Scientific Director, FEEM
  • Raymond Kopp: Senior Fellow and Co-Director of the Center for Energy and Climate Economics, Resources for the Future
  • Massimo Tavoni: Associate Professor at the Department of Management, Politecnico di Milano; and Coordinator, Mitigation, Innovation, and Transition Pathways Program, FEEM

Contributing Researchers:

  • Joseph E. Aldy: Associate Professor of Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Visiting Fellow, Resources for the Future; and Faculty Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research
  • William A. Pizer: Professor, Sanford School of Public Policy, Department of Economics, Environmental Sciences, and Policy; Faculty Fellow, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University; and University Fellow, Resources for the Future