The US Environmental Protection Agency established standards limiting air toxics emissions from industrial plants under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This paper analyzes the effects of the rules for five industries: petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing and publishing, pulp and paper, and wood furniture, finding mixed results, and make recommendations for improving ex ante analysis of such regulations.
Beginning with the 1972 Clean Water Act, technology-based standards have been a major part of the effort to clean up the nation’s waters. Most accounts of the experience with these standards present a mixed picture. What have they accomplished?
Mexico’s national oil company serves as a case study to demonstrate that substantial potential exists to use sectoral offsets to achieve cost-effective emissions reductions. But developing a viable baseline against which to credit reductions is key.