This report provides an overview of the existing state of research on induced seismicity related to both unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the United States.
- The large majority of studies we reviewed are retrospective and concerned with establishing association with oil and gas activities for specific events or changes in the rate of seismic events regionally that have occurred.
- This literature finds that the change in the rate of seismic events in the central and eastern United States is related to oil and gas operations, namely wastewater injection.
- Only recently have studies attempted more forward-looking analyses, with two studies establishing methods to predict the probability of induced seismic events in the future.
- Three studies assess above-ground impacts of oil and gas activities, including on the Oklahoma housing market, the acceptability of earthquakes, shaking intensity.