EPA appears likely to tighten the ambient ozone standard, even as many areas of the country are having great difficulties meeting the current standard. This paper offers an analysis of potential regulatory, administrative, and legislative initiatives for reducing the costs of meeting ozone standards. The detailed analysis of these initiatives is organized into six steps: (i) acknowledge mistakes and adapt to new knowledge; (ii) rehabilitate EPA's Title I Program; (iii) build on the best ideas; (iv) clarify and change the Clean Air Act; (v) educate the public; and (vi) fund research. EPA can go a long way to make its programs more efficient and effective without changes in the Clean Air Act; indeed, a number of its current initiatives show promise. But it must do more. Congress can help, too, by giving EPA the statutory guidance and freedom it needs to improve the program.