A Retrospective Study of EPA’s Rules Setting Best Available Technology Limits for Toxic Discharges to Water under the Clean Water Act

Beginning with the 1972 Clean Water Act, technology-based standards have been a major part of the effort to clean up the nation’s waters. Most accounts of the experience with these standards present a mixed picture. What have they accomplished?

Working Paper by Arthur G. Fraas and Alexander Egorenkov — Oct. 8, 2015