The production of crude oil and natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has become a growth sector within the North American energy industry, and current projections indicate that the production of some of these unconventional fossil fuels will continue accelerating in the foreseeable future. This shift in the energy industry has been accompanied by rising concerns over potential impacts on water resources because producing these fuels is thought to require more water per unit of energy produced than conventional sources and may lead to greater degradation of water quality. In this paper, we address these emerging environmental issues by (a) providing a comprehensive overview of the existing literature on the water quantity and quality implications of producing the main unconventional fossil fuels in North America and (b) characterizing the differences in social costs that arise from the extraction and production of these fuels versus those from conventional fossil fuel production.
Common Resources — Nov 14, 2013
Unconventional Fuel Production and Water Resources
Crude oil and natural gas production from unconventional reservoirs is experiencing accelerated growth in North America, much of which is expected ...
RFF Live — Dec 1, 2020
Going Greener: Green Public Procurement for Natural Gas, Cement, and Steel
Exploring how green procurement programs can be designed to encourage industry participation and lower carbon footprints
Report — Nov 19, 2020
Green Public Procurement for Natural Gas, Cement, and Steel
Green public procurement programs tend not to include basic materials like steel, iron, natural gas, and cement. This report describes what programs geared towards basic materials may look like, and how public programs at both the state and federal levels can be successfully implemented.