Multimedia Pollution Regulation and Environmental Performance: EPA’s Cluster Rule

In 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency implemented the Cluster Rule, its first integrated regulation, to mitigate both air and water pollution from the pulp and paper industry, where emissions and discharges are closely linked. This paper compares the agency’s estimated pollution reductions to an assessment based on the rule’s actual results and draws conclusions for both regulatory impact and retrospective analyses in general.

Working Paper by Wayne Gray, and Ronald Shadbegian — June 22, 2015



Wayne Gray

Ronald Shadbegian