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Border Adjustments

Border adjustments, also known as border tax adjustments or border carbon adjustments, are taxes on imports and rebates on exports that account for variance in carbon pricing policies across different countries. RFF scholars are studying the design of border adjustments, their implementation costs, and their impacts on public policy questions, including their impact on possible leakage of economic activities away from countries with carbon pricing policies.

Pricing Carbon at the Border

Read a summary of recent scholarship on border adjustments and its application to policy questions being addressed in the European Union.

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Border Adjustments for a US Greenhouse Gas Tax

Explore a framework for a US upstream greenhouse gas tax with WTO-compliant border adjustments.

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Solving a Climate Policy Problem with Smart Design

Understand how WTO-compliant border adjustment could solve climate policy competitiveness issues.

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