Global Energy Outlook

The definitive comparative analysis of global energy projections


The Global Energy Outlook (GEO) provides a unique “apples-to-apples” comparison of global energy projections by leading international organizations and corporations. It provides insight into the range of potential futures for energy at global, regional, and national levels, with projections varying due to distinct assumptions regarding energy technologies and public policies. For example, what is the outlook for coal consumption in China, oil consumption in India, and solar power in the United States under different policy pathways? The GEO includes projections and historical data from BP, BloombergNEF (BNEF), the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), ExxonMobil, Equinor, the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Institute of Energy Economics of Japan (IEEJ), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and Shell.

Our 2021 Global Energy Outlook is accompanied by an interactive data tool, which allows users to visualize, compare, and download harmonized data from each projection:

How the GEO Works

The Global Energy Outlook data tool allows users to explore harmonized data and projections from the world’s leading energy organizations. You can compare across or within outlooks using the following tools:

Measurement: Select which metric you want to visualize, such as primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions, electricity generation, and more.

Data series: Select how you’d like to compare the data. Select “outlooks and scenarios” to see projections from each organization on your topic of interest. Select “Regions,” “Sectors,” or “Fuels” to compare across regions, sectors, or fuels within your chosen outlook.

Filters: Find the data you're looking for by filtering between different outlooks, regions, fuel types, and sectors. Note that these options will change depending on your chosen Data Series.

Methods and Documentation

For a detailed description of our harmonization process, please see:

For additional documentation on the web tool, including definitions and details for measurements, sectoral groupings, fuels definitions, and regional groupings, please see:

Previous Global Energy Outlook Reports

Previous Global Energy Outlook reports are listed below.

Reports from 2018 and prior:

Reports for IEF Annual Symposium on Energy Outlooks

RFF President and CEO Richard Newell has partnered with the International Energy Forum (IEF) to prepare intercomparison reports in support of the IEF’s annual Symposium on Energy Outlooks. To view these reports, please visit the page below.


If you have comments or suggestions for the GEO team, get in touch by contacting our researchers.


Grubler, A. Energy Transitions. in Encyclopedia of Earth (Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, 2008). BP. Energy Outlook 2020. (2020).

Equinor. Energy Perspectives 2020: A Time of Great Uncertainty. (2020).

International Energy Agency. IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances. (2018).

International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2020. (2020).

International Energy Agency. Global Energy Review 2021. (2021).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Special Report on 1.5°C. (2018).

IRENA. Global Renewables Outlook: Energy Transformation 2050. (2020).

OPEC. World Oil Outlook 2020. (2020).

Bloomberg New Energy Finance. New Energy Outlook 2020. (2020).

*Resources for the Future (RFF) has Exxon Mobil Corporation’s express permission to use data from its Outlook for Energy. The data from the Outlook for Energy incorporated into RFF’s tool may not be otherwise used or reproduced without the permission of Exxon Mobil Corporation.