The Global Energy Outlook (GEO) provides a unique “apples-to-apples” comparison of global energy projections by leading international organizations and corporations. It provides insight into the range of potential futures for energy at global, regional, and national levels, with projections varying due to distinct assumptions regarding energy technologies and public policies. For example, what is the outlook for coal consumption in China, oil consumption in India, and solar power in the United States under different policy pathways? The GEO includes projections and historical data from BP, BloombergNEF (BNEF), the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), ExxonMobil, Equinor, the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Institute of Energy Economics of Japan (IEEJ), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and Shell.
Report — Jun 8, 2021
Global Energy Outlook 2021: Pathways from Paris
Resources for the Future’s annual Global Energy Outlook report finds that current trends fall far short of meeting emissions reduction targets, despite the economic slowdown of the COVID-19 pandemic.
RFF Live — Jun 8, 2021
The Global Energy Outlook: Pathways from Paris
An in-depth panel discussion on some of the potential long-term outlooks for energy markets and the global energy system
Our 2021 Global Energy Outlook is accompanied by an interactive data tool, which allows users to visualize, compare, and download harmonized data from each projection:
How the GEO Works
The Global Energy Outlook data tool allows users to explore harmonized data and projections from the world’s leading energy organizations. You can compare across or within outlooks using the following tools:
Measurement: Select which metric you want to visualize, such as primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions, electricity generation, and more.
Data series: Select how you’d like to compare the data. Select “outlooks and scenarios” to see projections from each organization on your topic of interest. Select “Regions,” “Sectors,” or “Fuels” to compare across regions, sectors, or fuels within your chosen outlook.
Filters: Find the data you're looking for by filtering between different outlooks, regions, fuel types, and sectors. Note that these options will change depending on your chosen Data Series.
Methods and Documentation
For a detailed description of our harmonization process, please see:
Previous Global Energy Outlook Reports
Prepared for the Tenth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Ninth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Eighth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Seventh IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Sixth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Fifth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Prepared for the Fourth IEA IEF OPEC Symposium on Energy Outlooks:
Grubler, A. Energy Transitions. in Encyclopedia of Earth (Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, 2008).
International Energy Agency. IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances. (2018).
Bloomberg New Energy Finance. New Energy Outlook 2018. (2018).
BP. Energy Outlook 2018. (2018).
Equinor. Energy Perspectives. (2018).
ExxonMobil. Outlook for Energy: A View to 2040. (2018).*
International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2018. (2018).
Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. Outlook 2019: Energy transition and a thorny path for 3E challenges. (2018).
OPEC. World Oil Outlook. (2018).
Shell. Sky Scenario. (2018).
US Energy Information Administration. International Energy Outlook. (2017).
*Resources for the Future (RFF) has Exxon Mobil Corporation’s express permission to use data from its 2018 Outlook for Energy. The data from the 2018 Outlook for Energy incorporated into RFF’s tool may not be otherwise used or reproduced without the permission of Exxon Mobil Corporation.